If you knew how I love you, how I have loved you in all my jealous, morbid moods, in all my exacting selfishness,—O Tom!
Manly Love: Romantic Friendship in American Fiction - Axel Nissen - Google книги
You sat across the hall. I saw you there; and I wanted to go over and help you. And your picture, Tom, that we quarrelled about,—I have it now, Tom; it will be with me when they bury me. I felt retrograde to be pining for this old-fashioned kind of love. I started to see that I was too held back by internalized homophobia to embrace other gay men, even though I was out to my family and friends. Part of my attraction to Luke Henry was his straightness.
He was the thing that I could not be myself, and that drew me to him. W hat delighted and unnerved me most about the nineteenth-century romantic friends was their self-possession. These men were completely attuned to their desires. They articulated their affiliations and emotions, and they spoke them to each other, in the measured tones of loyal bedfellows. One hundred and fifty years after men had found a structure and vocabulary for sharing their feelings for each other, Luke Henry and I were both inarticulate.
Its pleasures were confusing, challenging, queer. It ought to fill me with perfect joy, yet there is a little sting of pain somewhere.
Well, I must be vicariously happy, warmed in my lonely sphere by the far radiation of their nuptial bliss. I will wait: but I shall find her!
I came to see just how much I wanted to resist institutions themselves. I wanted no part in the milestones of matrimony and child-rearing, the standard trajectory of emotional life. The other part of me was grateful to meet these texts when I did, the winter I was losing Luke Henry to matrimony.
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They made me vividly, bracingly aware of my heartache. There was no cure, just a desperate, ferocious desire to read more.
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It felt appropriate that the second life of a romance born out of textuality was an archive. During his last week in Ann Arbor as a single man, Luke Henry left his vest in my apartment. He went back to Knoxville before I could give it back to him. For a few nights, I took his vest to bed with me. It became my blanket. I enveloped myself in it, feverishly, dolefully inhaling all its layered notes, the Old Spice, the sweat, the pizza, the woodsy air of the North Carolina cabin where we went for his bachelor party, the beer, the nachos, the fresh air of the arboretum where we used to go birding, the Michigan rain and the Tennessee smoke.
I saw the impossibility of romance, the fiction of all love objects, and doubled-down on it. Enjoy this story? Subscribe to the Oxford American. He is currently working on a book about romantic friendship, queer masculinity, and the tragic love gay boys have for straight guys. Order Issue Contact Newsletter Events. Issue , Fall Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
In England, the two men wound each other in a pointless duel that ends not with rancor, but with friendly feelings and vows of shared regard instead. Years later, as their respective nations duke it out, the two men meet again and revive a military friendship based upon institutional values, affectionate respect, and a shared taste for Madeira wine. The comic parody of heterosexual domesticity represented by these two codgers implies the simultaneously contiguous and divergent nature of American and British institutions. The romance of maritime power in The Pilot works though the implicit suggestion that development of improved manly virtues among Americans signals the eventual doom of gendered principles of allegiance articulated according to inherited British models.
However, while it stages the superiority of American manhood, The Pilot also points to the debt the young republic owed to metropolitan culture for acquired models of manliness. The politics of manliness in these maritime historical novels indicates that attitudes toward gender and sexuality permitted early architects of transatlantic white culture to represent the relations of the US with Britain dialectically.
Ideas about gender and emotion that were widely shared allowed Anglophone writers paths into debates about more factious issues, like individual rights or the nature of political authority. Recent studies of the interdependent concepts of race and nation in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century fiction illustrate how narratives of racial difference helped writers to invent a symbolic cultural and political heritage for the new nation. For instance, Jared Gardner has described how, in the Leatherstocking novels, Cooper reconciles the republic with the culture and institutions of Britain by staging the disappearance of natives and African-Americans into an imagined past.
However, in his maritime novels of the s, Cooper uses manhood to depict the traditions and truisms of Old World politics succumbing to the irresistible force of republican pluck. Cooper self-consciously presents a revised version of manhood and gender relations in order to justify the claims of his Revolutionary heroes not only to integrity, but to some degree of superior manliness over their British foes, who may be valiant but whose dedication to tradition prevents the public recognition of merit in enterprising individuals like John Paul Jones.
In The Pilot , when men recognize worthiness in other men, the loving friendships that arise supposedly create a stronger, more stable state. I use "republican" to refer to political ideas that both value representative government, elite or democratic, and emphasize a need for communal identity. In early nineteenth-century American culture, republican ideologues tended to understand political power as embodied in representative males who are endowed with authority by a constituency comprised of elite white property-owners, who in turn represent the aggregate body of society.
For example, in no.
The narratives of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century seafarers suggest that Atlantic rim culture is as constructed as local and national geo-political terms for cultural contiguity. Since maritime workers were a historical locus of transatlantic cultural exchange, then narratives about sailors provide an especially useful archive for excavating embedded concerns with the shifting configurations of citizenship and international relations.
Christopher Hill notes that in the seventeenth century pirate "Captains were often elected, and were answerable to their crews; decisions on policy and disciplinary punishments were democratically taken. This contrasted very sharply with the despotism of naval captains, the rule of the lash, the ultimate possibility of a death sentence for mutiny" Hill, Rotundo shows that in the later eighteenth century, intimate friendship between men was the norm in genteel circles.
Most notably, in American Sympathy , Caleb Crain examines the relationship of sympathy to manhood in the early republic, and in the process shows how critics might productively view friendship among men as a site of possibility and complex negotiations of affect, rather than a reflection of the competitive relations of the market. My purpose here is to show how, for writers like Cooper, the dialectical emotional exchanges between friends also suggested one way to re-imagine the relationship of Britain to the US. In A Republic of Men political scientist Kann analyzes the ways in which cultural concepts of gender, and especially white manhood, were deployed in federalist print of the early national era.
Positing a cultural "grammar of manhood"—comprised of "the hegemonic norms, language, and rules they employed to promote public quiescence and justify leadership" 3 —Kann assesses the effect of cultural notions of threatening non-heterosexual manly disorder, family stability, civic virtue and heroic individuality on the development of citizenship and doctrines of political authority. According to his sociology of the individual as political fetish, the modern state routinizes gender inequalities through a "workaday" bureaucracy located in the mundane structural demands of economic activity; in the civic arena created by official bureaucracy, patriarchal social patterns formalize commercial relations and enforce the domination of a perceived "natural leader" in the home, the marketplace, and the sphere of civic activity.
In the Western political scenarios that Weber describes, a social group recognizes the quality of "charisma" in a man; this act of ascription legitimizes the privileged positions of charismatic individuals within the prescribed hierarchy of the "social strata" Weber, Weber claims that under the conditions of modern capitalism, most social institutions in the West authorize these forms of individual—almost always a male individual—empowerment by managing the system of social status and access to capital.
In a similar manner, maritime historical novels such as The Pirate and The Pilot relate individual consciousness to grand historical narratives through shared experience. For literary scholars like Elizabeth Barnes, Julia Stern, and Lori Merish, in the eighteenth century philosophies of sympathy set the precedent for sentimental forms and rhetoric—a nineteenth century middle class phenomena with a unique incarnation in the US. In her examination of the ways that familial love intersects with seduction plots, Elizabeth Barnes illustrates how doctrines of sympathy could collapse a variety of emotional relations into the same forms in nineteenth-century novels.
Stern uses her readings to describe the psychological underpinnings of connections between emotion, gender, and national violence in US writing, while Merish emphasizes attitudes toward the political and national subject status of middle-class women that make commodity consumption into a gendered practice.
Following Nancy Armstrong, most feminists examining literary form in the early US emphasize the acculturation of British forms associated with the white middle class; for many of these scholars the literary relations of the US with Britain illustrate the relevance of British culture and especially print culture to gendered, political, and material practices in later nineteenth-century America.
Pdf Manly Love Romantic Friendship In American Fiction
Despite the prevalence of this narrative convention in popular fiction and film, "critical discussions of the American [canonical] tradition have nonetheless debated, for almost half a century, the meaning, centrality, and utopian possibilities inherent in the image of closely bonded men" My point is that the cultural work assigned to same-sex friendship in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century historical fictions eventually produced the discourse of sexual correspondence that allowed twentieth-century critics like Leslie Fiedler to theorize "democracy" in US fiction by pointing to scenarios that displace women and heterosexuality, and that use same-sex bonds to dissolve the historical and political problem of racial difference Barnes, Elizabeth.
New York: Columbia UP, Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. New York: Penguin Classics, Cohen, Margaret. Crain, Caleb. New Haven: Yale UP, Ellison, Julie. University of Chicago Press, Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Criterion Books, Gardner, Jared. Hill, Christopher. London: Penguin Press, Hobbes, Thomas. De Cive. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Hutcheson, Francis. A System of Moral Philosophy , vol. Bernhard Fabian. Hildesheim, G. Kann, Mark. Land, Isaac. U of Michigan, Merish, Lori.
Durham: Duke University Press, Pocock, J. Princeton: The Princeton University Press, Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist Papers. New York: Mentor Books, Rotundo, Anthony. New York: Basic Books, Sedgwick, Eve. New York: Columbia University Press, Scott, Julius. Duke U, Scott, Sir Walter. The Pirate. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Smith, Adam. The Theory of Moral Sentiments.
Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, Spencer, Mark G. David Hume and Eighteenth-Century America. Published 18 September Get a month's unlimited access to THE content online.
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