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Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. Seller Inventory GI3N More information about this seller Contact this seller 1. Condition: Very Good. A copy that has been read, but remains in excellent condition. Pages are intact and are not marred by notes or highlighting, but may contain a neat previous owner name. The spine remains undamaged. The dust jacket is missing.

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Published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited Condition: Acceptable. Volume 16A. Some underlining and markings. Seller Inventory mon More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Paul R Pintrich; Martin L. Published by JAI Press Condition: Used: Good.

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More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Published by Jai Pr About this Item: Jai Pr, Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. Ideological items include four subjects divided into occupation, religion, politics, and philosophical lifestyle, which have eight items each.

Interpersonal items include four subjects divided into friendship, dating, sex roles, and recreation, which also have eight items each. Each of the ideological and interpersonal subjects consists of four dimensions divided into diffused identity, foreclosure, moratorium, and achieved identity, which have two items each. Scores of the four dimensions diffused identity, foreclosure, moratorium, and achieved identity are summed in all of ideological and interpersonal subjects, and then means and standard deviations of each of those four dimensions are calculated.

Cutoff points for each of the four dimensions are computed by adding the mean to 0. Therefore, students scoring beyond a higher cutoff point on a single dimension were grouped into a status of that dimension. However, students scoring beyond higher cutoff points on two or more dimensions were grouped into a less developed status diffused identity, foreclosure, and moratorium.

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Additionally, students scoring at lower cutoff points on all dimensions were grouped into the low-profile moratorium. The scale includes 28 items consisting of four dimensions divided into passion 11 items , hope 7 items , adventure 6 items , and self-confidence 4 items. The items of the passion dimension express wholehearted devotion to doing work, and the items of the hope dimension indicate that desire will be realized, or needs will be fulfilled [ 19 ].

Higher scores mean that a person is deeply motivated to achieve tasks. The scale includes 40 items consisting of two areas divided into 20 mother-child relationship items and 20 father-child relationship items.

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The two areas include four dimensions divided into closeness 7 items , devotion 6 items , respect 4 items , and strictness 3 items. The items of the respect dimension express an admiration for parents, or feeling high regard for their parents, and the items of the strictness dimension present that parents demand accurate attention to rules, or impose rigorous discipline on their children [ 25 ]. Higher scores mean that the characteristic of each dimension is higher.

Data collection Data were collected from May 11th to May 20th, After gaining approval from the chair of a nursing school, the survey was conducted with nursing students, who willingly agreed to take part in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire composed of items assessing ego identity, achievement motivation, the parent-child relationship, and demographic characteristics.

The average response time of participants was approximately 30 minutes. Participants were given explanations about the purpose and intent of this study. In addition, participants were informed that their responses would be dealt with anonymously and confidentially, and that they could withdraw from this study whenever they wished to do so. Participants voluntarily gave written permission to participate. Ego identity, achievement motivation, the parent-child relationship, and demographic characteristics of students were analyzed with descriptive statistics.

The differences in achievement motivation and the parent-child relationship according to ego identity were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between ego identity and demographic characteristics were analyzed with the x 2 test. Factors influencing ego identity of students were determined using multinomial logistic regression analysis.


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And In addition, Additionally, The means and standard deviations of the four dimensions diffused identity, foreclosure, moratorium, and achieved identity were As well, cutoff points for diffused identity, foreclosure, moratorium, and achieved identity were computed at According to revised classification criteria [ 23 ], students were grouped into five ego identity statuses; Achievement motivation according to ego identity Achievement motivation according to ego identity is presented in Table 1. The parent-child relationship according to ego identity The mother-child relationship according to ego identity is presented in Table 2.

The mother-child relationship among students was not different according to ego identity, and dimensions of closeness, devotion, and strictness among students were not different according to ego identity. The father-child relationship according to ego identity is presented in Table 3. Relationship between ego identity and demographic characteristics Relationship between ego identity and demographic characteristics are presented in Table 4.

Advances in Motivation and Achievement

Factors influencing ego identity To determine factors influencing ego identity of nursing students, multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using the diffused identity as a standard dependent, while achievement motivation and the father-child relationship were included as covariates, and year in school, satisfaction with school, and having religious beliefs were inputted as factors. Factors influencing ego identity are presented in Table 5. These low ratios of achieved identity and moratorium were similar to Less than a quarter of students were with achieved identity status and moratorium, which means that just a few students explored alternatives, while more than three quarters of students did not take risks to choose various options.

However, the proportions of diffused identity and low-profile moratorium in this study were These high ratios of diffused identity and low-profile moratorium were similar to More than half of students were with diffused identity and low-profile moratorium statuses, which indicates that the greater part of students did not explore alternatives, moreover did not engage in any option.

This is because exploring alternatives in breadth and in depth has been known to be accompanied by stress [ 13 ]. Hence, individuals with moratorium feel chaotic and unstable while evaluating many options and opportunities [ 26 ]. However, individuals need to test new values and roles as well as engage in a decided option to achieve their own identities [ 12 ].

In other words, university students should submit to experiencing new tasks and responsibilities, at the same time, they should try to find answers for ego identity formation [ 5 ]. Therefore, nursing educators should support students to look at alternative beliefs and roles, and help them to test options during a stage of crisis. Specifically, guidance and counseling should be given to nursing students who are faced with struggles to explore various options and make decisions. In addition, systemic consideration and effective education programs are needed to encourage students to develop their ego identity.

As anticipated, ego identity of nursing students was related to achievement motivation. Achievement motivation among students with moratorium and achieved identity status was higher than that among students with low-profile moratorium and diffused identity status. It means that students who were deeply motivated to achieve tasks explored alternatives, and some of them reached the status of achieved identity through moratorium.


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  6. Because achievement motivation stimulates students toward goal attainment and task fulfillment [ 18 ], highly motivated students could take risks of exploring new tasks, and finally could make decisions. In particular, the level of passion, hope, and self-confidence dimension among students with achieved identity status were higher than that of students with diffused identity status. In other words, nursing students could get out of diffused identity to reach achieved identity when they were devoted to doing work, hoped their desires would be realized, and believed in their own abilities.

    The findings differed from an expectation that ego identity of nursing students was not related to the mother-child relationship. Nevertheless, the respect dimension in the mother-child relationship of students in foreclosure was higher than that of students with low-profile moratorium status. As well, the father-child relationship of students with achieved identity status was not different from students with other statuses; rather, the father-child relationship of students in foreclosure was higher than that of students with diffused identity status.

    It indicates that students who highly regarded their parents tended to accept the values of their parents. Parental support did not affect much more in the time from adolescence to early adulthood than before [ 27 ]. Calculations were also breakdown by gender to assess differences between male and female students. Students' mean level of motivation was less than the means of parental influence and student's characteristics.

    No gender differences were observed on the variables measured by the instrument. Correlations between each of motivation, family environment, student characteristics and academic achievement were small and practically not significant. Remarkably high correlation value was observed between motivation and students characteristic. The highest correlation value was observed between family environment and students' characteristics.

    Results were discussed on the light of other studies' findings and results. Intelligence is not the only determinant of academic achievement. Development of academic intrinsic motivation in students is an important goal for educators because of its inherent important for future motivation as well as for student's effective school functioning Gottfried, The family is the primary social system for children.

    Rollins and Thomas found that high parental control were associated with high achievement. Cassidy and Lynn included a specific factor of the family's socioeconomic status, crowding, as an indicator of how being disadvantaged affects educational attainment.