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    Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard's vanguard, commanded by Norfolk , attacked but struggled against Oxford's men, some of Norfolk's troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight.

    Seeing the King's knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened. After the battle Henry was crowned king below an oak tree in nearby Stoke Golding , now a residential garden. Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably. From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil; the climax of William Shakespeare's play Richard III provides a focal point for critics in film adaptations.

    The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, memorials have been erected at different locations. In the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from , suggested a location two miles southwest of Ambion Hill. During the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury.

    The Lancastrian King Henry VI and his only son, Edward of Lancaster , died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury , their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. The Yorkist king, Edward IV, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry, naming them traitors and confiscating their lands.

    The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them to land in Brittany, a semi-independent duchy, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry Tudor , the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of the royal bloodline , had a weak claim to the throne, Edward regarded him as "a nobody". The Duke of Brittany , viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid in conflicts with France and kept the Tudors under his protection.

    Edward V was too young to rule and a Royal Council was established to rule the country until the king's coming of age; some among the council were worried when it became apparent that the Woodvilles, relatives of Edward IV's widow Elizabeth, were plotting to use their control of the young king to dominate the council. Having offended many in their quest for wealth and power, the Woodville family was not popular. To frustrate the Woodvilles' ambitions, Lord Hastings and other members of the council turned to the new king's uncle—Richard, Duke of Gloucester , brother of Edward IV; the courtiers urged Gloucester to assume the role of Protector as had been requested by his now dead brother.

    On 29 April Gloucester, accompanied by a contingent of guards and Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham , took Edward V into custody and arrested several prominent members of the Woodville family. He was the grandson of Duke of Brittany. A recurring theme in Francis' life would be his quest to maintain the quasi-independence of Brittany from France ; as such, his reign was characterized by conflicts with King Louis XI of France and with his daughter, Anne of France , who served as regent during the minority of her brother, King Charles VIII.

    The armed and unarmed conflicts between — have been called the Mad War and the " War of the Public Weal ". During the latter half of the 15th century, civil war existed in England as the House of York and House of Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In , the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury ; the Lancastrian king, Henry VI of England and his only son, Edward of Westminster , died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury.

    Their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. Subsequently, the Yorkist king, Edward IV of England , was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry Tudor , naming them as traitors and confiscating their lands.

    Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of royal bloodline , had a weak claim to the throne, King Edward IV regarded him as "a nobody. However, Francis II viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid, when in conflicts with France, therefore kept the Tudors under his protection. There, Francis II generously supported this group of exiled Englishmen against all the Plantagenet demands that he should surrender them.

    Duke Francis II supported this invasion by providing 40, gold crowns, 15, soldiers, a fleet of transport ships. Henry's fleet of 15 chartered vessels was scattered by a storm, his ship reached the coast of England in company with only one other vessel. Henry realized that the soldiers on shore were the men of the new Yorkist king, Richard III of England , so he decided to abandon the invasion and return to Brittany; as for Henry's main conspirator in England, Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham , he was convicted of treason and beheaded on 2 November , way before Henry's ships landed in England.

    Survivors of the failed uprising fled to Brittany, where they supported Henry Tudor's claim to the throne.

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    Francis II refused. In mid, Francis was incapacitated by one of his periods of illness, while recuperating, his treasurer, Pierre Landais , took over the reins of government. Landais reached an agreement with King Richard III to send Henry and his uncle Jasper back to England in exchange for a pledge of 3, English archers to defend Brittany against a threatened French attack.

    John Morton , a bishop of Flanders , warned the Tudors in time. The Tudors managed to separately escape, hours ahead of Landais' soldiers, across the nearby border into France. Thus, the loss of the Lancastrians played against the interests of Francis II. After Alan, the title and its possessions were bestowed upon the Dukes of Brittany , with a few interruptions, through the ducal reign of John IV , which ended in It is possible that Francis willed whatever remained of his cl.

    Lambert Simnel Lambert Simnel was a pretender to the throne of England. Simnel became the figurehead of a Yorkist rebellion organised by Earl of Lincoln ; the rebellion was crushed in Simnel was pardoned and was thereafter employed by the Royal household as a scullion , as a falconer. Simnel was born around , his real name is not known—contemporary records call him John, not Lambert, his surname is suspect.

    Different sources have different claims of his parentage, from a baker and tradesman to organ builder. Most he was of humble origin. At the age of about ten, he was taken as a pupil by an Oxford-trained priest named Richard Simon who decided to become a kingmaker , he tutored the boy in courtly contemporaries described the boy as handsome. He was well educated by Simon. One contemporary described him as "a boy so learned, had he ruled, he would have as a learned man.

    However, when he heard rumours that the Earl of Warwick had died during his imprisonment in the Tower of London , he changed his mind. The real Warwick was a boy of about the same age, having been born in , had a claim to the throne as the son of George Plantagenet , 1st Duke of Clarence , King Edward IV's executed brother. According to James A. Williamson , Simnel was a figurehead for a rebellion, being planned by the Yorkists: He was a commonplace tool to be used for important ends, the attempt to overthrow Henry VII would have taken place had Simnel never existed; the Yorkist leaders were determined on a serious push, rising of their party in England supported by as great a force as possible from overseas.

    Simon spread a rumour that Warwick had escaped from the Tower and was under his guardianship, he gained some support from Yorkists. He took Simnel to Ireland where there was still support for the Yorkist cause, presented him to the head of the Irish government, the Earl of Kildare. Kildare was willing to invade England to overthrow King Henry. Simnel was paraded through the streets, carried on the shoulders of "the tallest man of the time", an individual called D'Arcy of Platten. Lord Kildare collected an army of Irish soldiers under the command of his younger brother, Thomas FitzGerald of Laccagh.

    Lincoln claimed, he met Viscount Lovell , who had supported a failed Yorkist uprising in Margaret collected 2, Flemish mercenaries and shipped them to Ireland under the command of Martin Schwartz , a noted military leader of the time, they arrived in Ireland on 5 May. King Henry began to gather troops. Simnel's army—mainly Flemish and Irish troops—landed on Piel Island in the Furness area of Lancashire on 5 June and were joined by some English supporters.

    However, most local nobles, with the exception of Sir Thomas Broughton , did not join them. Lincoln and Thomas FitzGerald were killed. Lovell went missing. Simons was imprisoned for life. Kildare, who had remained in Ireland, was pardoned. King Henry put him to work in the royal kitchen as a spit-turner; when he grew older, he became a falconer. No information about his life is known, he died some time between and The children's book The Player King , by Avi, offers a fictionalized first-person account of the key period of Simnel's life.

    Perkin Warbeck Simnel cake, a cake with the same name, but which predated him by some centuries; the term simnel here refers to fine flour , is related to the word semolina. Ashley, Mike. ISBN The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3, documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website. It is accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella; some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come.

    The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords; the title of " Catholic King and Queen " was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in , in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms. At the time of their marriage on October 19, , Isabella was eighteen years old and the heiress presumptive to the Crown of Castile , while Ferdinand was seventeen and heir apparent to the Crown of Aragon.

    They married within a week. From the start, they worked well together. Both knew that the crown of Castile was "the prize, that they were both jointly gambling for it. They were second cousins, so in order to marry they needed a papal dispensation that Pope Paul II , an Italian pope opposed to Aragon's influence on the Mediterranean and to the rise of monarchies strong enough to challenge the Pope, refused to grant, so they falsified a papal bull of their own.

    Pope Paul II would remain a bitter enemy of Spain and the monarch for all his life, is attributed the quote, "May all Spaniards be cursed by God and heretics , the seed of Jews and Moors. Henry instead recognized Joanna of Castile , born during his marriage to Joanna of Portugal , but whose paternity was in doubt, since Henry was rumored to be impotent. When Henry died in , Isabella asserted her claim to the throne, contested by thirteen-year-old Joanna. Joanna sought aid of Afonso V of Portugal , to claim the throne; this dispute between rival claimants led to the War of — Isabella called on the aid of Aragon , with her husband, the heir apparent, his father, Juan II of Aragon providing it.

    Although Aragon provided support for Isabella's cause, Isabella's supporters had extracted concessions, Isabella was acknowledged as the sole heir to the crown of Castile. Juan II died in , Ferdinand succeeded to the throne in January Through close cooperation, the royal couple were successful in securing political power in the Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand's father had advised the couple that "neither was powerful without the other. The coat of arms of the Catholic Monarchs is designed with elements to show their cooperation and working in tandem, their joint motto was " Tanto monta, monta tanto ".

    The motto was created by Antonio de Nebrija and was either an allusion to the Gordian knot: Tanto monta, monta tanto, cortar como desatar, or an explanation of the equality of the monarchs: Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando.

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    Y and F are the initials of Fernando. A double yoke is worn by a team of oxen. Isabella's emblem of arrows showed the armed power of the crown, "a warning to Castilians not acknowledging the reach of royal authority or that greatest of royal functions, the right to mete out justice" by force of violence. The iconography is found on various works of art; these badges were used gathered by the fascist , from fasces , Spanish political party Falange, which claimed to represent the inherited glory and the ideals of the Catholic Monarchs.

    The establishment of System of Royal Councils to oversee discrete regions or areas was Isabella succeeded to the throne of Castile in when Ferdinand was still heir-apparent to Aragon, with Aragon. Northamptonshire Northamptonshire , archaically known as the County of Northampton , is a county in the East Midlands of England. In it had a population of ,; the county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils.

    It is known as "The Rose of the Shires". Covering an area of 2, square kilometres, Northamptonshire is landlocked between eight other counties: Warwickshire to the west and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west and Lincolnshire to the north-east — England's shortest administrative county boundary at 19 metres. Northamptonshire is the southernmost county in the East Midlands region.

    Apart from the county town of Northampton , other major population centres include Kettering , Wellingborough and Daventry.

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    Northamptonshire's county flower is the cowslip. Much of Northamptonshire's countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an sparse population and few finds from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods. In about BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at Arbury Camp, Rainsborough camp, Borough Hill , Castle Dykes, Guilsborough and most notably of all, Hunsbury Hill. There are two more possible hill-forts at Arbury Thenford.

    In the 1st century BC, most of what became Northamptonshire became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni , a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession; the Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD. The Roman road of Watling Street passed through the county, an important Roman settlement, stood on the site of modern-day Towcester. A large fort was built at Longthorpe. After the Romans left, the area became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia , Northampton functioned as an administrative centre. From about the area was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw — with Watling Street serving as the boundary — until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder , son of Alfred the Great , in Northamptonshire was conquered again in , this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in , it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements.

    The county was first recorded as Hamtunscire: the scire of Hamtun; the "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton — though the origins of the two names are in fact different. Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times.

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    The now-ruined Fotheringhay Castle was used to imprison Queen of Scots, before her execution. George Washington , the first President of the United States of America, was born into the Washington family who had migrated to America from Northamptonshire in Before Washington's ancestors moved to Sulgrave, they lived in Lancashire.

    During the English Civil War , Northamptonshire supported the Parliamentarian cause, the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in in the north of the county. King Charles I was imprisoned at Holdenby House in In Northamptonshire was said to " a pure and wholesome air" because of its dryness and distance from the sea, its livestock were celebrated: "Horned cattle, other animals, are fed to extraordinary sizes: and many horses of the large black breed are reared.

    In summer, the county hosted "a great number of wealthy families In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire and the surrounding area became industrialised; the local specialisation was shoemaking and the leather industry and by the end of the 19th century it was definitively the boot and shoe making capital of the world. In the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed from Prior to the ancient hundreds were disused. Northamptonshire was administered as four major divisions: Northern, Eastern and Southern.

    During the s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire remains rural. Corby was designated a new town in and Northampton followed in ; as of the government is encouraging d. Carisbrooke Castle Carisbrooke Castle is a historic motte-and-bailey castle located in the village of Carisbrooke , Isle of Wight , England.

    Charles I was imprisoned at the castle in the months prior to his trial; the site of Carisbrooke Castle may have been occupied in pre-Roman times. The Jutes may have taken over the fort by the late 7th century. An Anglo-Saxon stronghold occupied the site during the 8th century. Around , a wall was built around the hill as a defence against Viking raids. From the castle remained in the possession of Richard de Redvers' family, over the next two centuries his descendants improved the castle with stone walls, towers and a keep. From on, its governance was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown.

    In , in the reign of Richard II the castle was unsuccessfully attacked by the French. It was reputedly saved by local hero Peter de Heyno.

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    Anthony Woodville , Lord Scales Earl Rivers , obtained a grant of the castle and rights of Lordship in , he was responsible for the addition of the Woodville Gate, now known as the Entrance Gate. Woodville was killed by Richard III in , but his brother Edward Woodville was given control of the castle on the accession of Henry VII in ; the keep was added to the castle in the reign of Henry I , in the reign of Elizabeth I , when the Spanish Armada was expected, it was surrounded by additional fortifications by Sir George Carey , appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight in Carey commissioned the Italian engineer Federigo Giambelli to make more substantial improvements to the defences.

    Charles I was imprisoned here for fourteen months before his execution in Afterwards his two youngest children were confined in the castle, Princess Elizabeth died there. The castle is located above, to the south of, Carisbrooke village centre. In , English Heritage opened a holiday flat inside the castle, in converted former staff quarters; the flat is above the museum near the room. A balcony going across the King's prison room adjoins the flat, rented on a long lease to English Heritage staff. Carisbrooke Castle and the surrounding historic area was, on the 27th June , accepted to the'Approved' list of the independently-run Cherwell Newspaper Fashion section; the castle received , visitors during Carisbrooke was the strongest castle on the Island.